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American Nietzsche: A History of an Icon and His Ideas
University of Chicago Press, 2012
462 pp., $20.00
Nietzsches Nietzsches Everywhere
The tragic and ironic final chapter of Friedrich Nietzsche's life began with a spectacular collapse into debilitating insanity on the streets of Turin, Italy. It ended with the incapacitated philosopher occupying the second floor of a Weimar villa that housed the archives from which his sister Elizabeth would assume controversial control over his legacy. Prior to his breakdown, Nietzsche balanced his expectation of being a seer and facilitator of a civilizational crisis with the conviction that he was criminally underappreciated in his lifetime. The European "Nietzsche vogue" of his incomprehensible final years, however, gave credence to the notion that his time had indeed come. Among the witnesses of this phenomenon was Wilbur Urban, an American doctoral student at the University of Leipzig and son of an Episcopal priest who discovered The Genealogy of Morals in a local bookstore. Urban later described the resulting personal encounter with Nietzsche's ideas, as he read through the night and undertook an intellectual and spiritual reevaluation of everything he held dear.
Urban's experience of reading Nietzsche is recounted in Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen's richly textured and absorbing American Nietzsche: The History of an Icon and His Ideas. The juxtaposition of Nietzsche near death in Weimar with a young American graduate student transfixed by his writings just miles away captures the importance of biography in Ratner-Rosenhagen's account. Nietzsche's "persona" became a focal point for readers and reviewers who "interpreted his philosophy through the lens of his biography." Yet American Nietzsche is also about the stories, emotions, and longings of Nietzsche's readers and the "strong affective dimension" involved in how his ideas were received. The act of reading Nietzsche is narrated through published sources, personal recollections, marginalia, and fan letters written to Nietzsche and his sister. They give evidence of a thinker who struck a nerve with American readers ...