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The Philosophy of Hebrew Scripture
The Philosophy of Hebrew Scripture
Yoram Hazony
Cambridge University Press, 2012
286 pp., $27.99

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Steven D. Ealy


Re-Reading the Story of Cain and Abel

Farmer vs. shepherd.

At least since Augustine's The City of God, the biblical account of Cain and Abel has been used to treat them as archetypes of humanity. Augustine argues that mankind is "distributed into two parts, the one consisting of those who live according to man, the other of those who live according to God." This is the foundation of Augustine's mystical understanding of the two cities, the city of man and the city of God. Cain was the first citizen of the city of man, while Abel belonged to the city of God. Both Cain and Abel were "first of all born of Adam evil and carnal," tainted with original sin. Only Abel, however, becomes a citizen of the city of God because after his carnal birth he "becomes good and spiritual … when he is grafted into Christ by regeneration." In Augustine's reading, Abel's status as a citizen of the city of God is not a matter of his actions or free choices; rather, he was "predestined by grace, elected by grace, [to be] a stranger below [in the city of man], and … a citizen above [in the city of God]." Based on Genesis 4:17, Cain is regarded as the builder of the first city, and therefore could be seen as the founder of the city of man. Augustine notes this in his discussion of the brothers: "Accordingly, it is recorded of Cain that he built a city, but Abel, being a sojourner, built none."

One of the pitfalls in using Cain and Abel (and perhaps in using other well-known biblical figures such as Abraham or Job) as types is the possibility of allowing the conclusion of the story to lead us into the development of predictable and oversimplified categories that miss the paradoxes and tensions contained in the original biblical story. A recent work that examines Cain and Abel as types but attempts to avoid this trap is The Philosophy of Hebrew Scripture by Yoram Hazony, president of the Herzl Institute in Jerusalem. I want to outline Hazony's discussion here for two reasons. First, Hazony's work is an important contribution to understanding ...

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